Saturday, July 31, 2021

Game 426: Fortress of the Witch King (1983)

Climate change will do its own job within a generation.
Fortress of the Witch King
United States
Avalon Hill (developer and publisher)
Released in 1983 for Apple II and FM-7; 1984 for Commodore 64 and PC-88
Date Started: 20 July 2021
Date Ended: 21 July 2021
Total Hours: 4
Difficulty: User-defined
Final Rating: 22
Ranking at Time of Posting: 164/428 (38%)
Fortress of the Witch King belongs to a sub-genre of strategy games that I didn't realize needed a name until now. I first encountered it in Robert Clardy's Wilderness Campaign (1979) and Odyssey: The Compleat Apventure (1980), then later in Sword of Zedek (1981) and Braminar (1987). A lot of Crystalware's titles were close. There are probably lots of others, but a game has to be incorrectly tagged as an RPG to come to my attention in the first place.
In these games, you have an ultimate goal, usually to overthrow a king or wizard, and to do so you have to amass a lot of resources. You might start with a few soldiers and a little gold. You march through the game world, and each square has a chance of an encounter with an enemy, a potential ally, or some situation that benefits you to resolve. Your fortunes wax and wane but hopefully trend upward in the aggregate. When you're strong enough, or have found some combination of artifacts, you take on the evil wizard and generally become the new king.
"Character creation" in Fortress.
I'm not a strategy game addict, so I don't know: Is there a term for this kind of game? It's much different from the typical "4X" strategy game exemplified by Warlords in which you compete with other factions that basically adhere to the same rules. Is there a ur example that I'm not aware of? Fortress is yet another of this style of game. I have to imagine that the author, M. E. Mehlich (about whom I can find nothing) at least played Zedek. The twist here is that up to four players can play at once, trading rounds, and the first to defeat the evil Witch King wins. As a single-player game, though, it feels very much like the already-mentioned titles.
Part of the game map. I'm on top of a town. The Witch King's fortress is north of me. A sanctuary is in between.
Fortress takes place on a 40 x 40 map, randomized for each new game, dotted with forests, mountains, water, towns, sanctuaries, and the witch king's titular fortress. You move your army across this terrain, battling monsters for gold, enlisting warriors, elves, and dwarves, finding magic items, and spending your riches in towns. When you feel like you're strong enough to take on the witch king, you head for his fortress. If you're victorious, points are awarded for the difficulty level and number of rounds it took you to defeat him.
Your options each turn.
The game is highly customizable. After selecting the number of players and giving a name to each one, the player chooses a game difficulty on a scale of 1-4 and a map difficulty on a scale of 1-20. Higher game difficulty means higher numbers of monsters and less gold. Higher map difficulty means more mountains (where tough encounters are more likely) and water (which requires a raft) and fewer sanctuaries and towns.
The "Seeing" spell shows the entire landscape.
Each character starts with a few allies depending on difficulty, usually a couple dozen warriors, a couple of scouts, and a mule or two. Ultimately, you're looking to build it with scouts (increase map viewing distance), warriors, a wizard (adds to combat strength and casts spells), elves (also cast spells), dwarves, raiders (only useful against other players' camps), mules (to carry all your gold), rafts, and magic items. Warriors, elves, and dwarves will offer to join in occasional friendly encounters. You can purchase everything else in towns.
The marketplace. Prices and inventory change between visits.
Each move you make carries a chance of an enemy encounter, including orcs, trolls, goblins, werebears, hydras, and dragons. The game tends to throw comparably-sized enemy parties at you, so it's tough to keep a large army around for long. You have no choices in combat; you just have to watch as your party and enemies trade blows. At the end of combat, if you win, you get gold and often items such as spells, magic weapons, and maps to magic items.
"You" can't really die. The worst that can happen is you lose all your people, and thus your ability to carry gold. When this happens, you can make your way to a sanctuary, where you get a small number of warriors and rations and a chance to start over. Even at a difficulty of 3, I found it relatively easy to keep my fortunes on an upward trajectory as long as I fled when I was outclassed in battle.
The outcome of one round against a group of orcs.
And the final round against a dragon.
For a single player, it is thus fairly easy to win. There are four magic items that improve your chances against the Witch King: a Horn of Opening (without which it's tough to even enter his fortress), Boots of Stealth, Armor of Defense, and the Sword of Strength. These are scattered about the map, guarded by dragons. Spells of Seeking show you where they are, and Teleport spells can take you there instantly, so getting them is mostly a matter of fighting random combats until you have 100+ warriors and a Sword of Dragon Slaying and then warping to their squares. (Both spells are relatively common). In a multi-player game, with the items scattered among the players, the Witch King's fortress must be much harder. 
I'm getting there, but I need a lot more warriors before I take on the Witch King.
When you're ready to take on the Witch King, you head for the fortress and hope you get in. You have a 75% chance with the Horn of Opening; otherwise, your odds depend on the number of scouts in your party. Once inside, you explore a 4 x 4 map full of nasty encounters and at least one teleporter that kicks you out of the dungeon. The Witch King is in a random square.
As long as he doesn't bear me away to the houses of lamentation and whatnot.
When you find the Witch King, your army goes away and you fight him one-on-one, your odds dependent on the other magic items and random rolls of the dice, I guess. Even with all four items, he came close to killing me. If you win, you get a brief congratulatory message and a score.
Imagine if it still worked that way. What would some of President Oswald's accomplishments have been?
I had fun with the game for a few hours, but it's not an RPG, and I wish MobyGames contributors would stop classifying this type of game as such. This isn't a matter of my definitions: The site's own definition is that RPGs "focus on character development . . . the main character(s) in the game learns new abilities or improves the capabilities of old ones." There isn't even a "main character" in this game, let alone one who improves his abilities.
I'm not sure 6 is very good. It took me a long time.
Nonetheless, I played and numbered it because it was short, and I give it:
  • 1 point for a basic backstory.
  • 0 points for character creation and development.
  • 2 points for NPCs. I guess I'll regard the warriors who join the party as NPCs.
  • 3 points for encounters and foes. The driving mechanism of the game is random encounters.
  • 2 points for magic and combat. There are some good non-combat spell options, but otherwise not much to do in combat.
  • 2 points for equipment--a variety of useful and magical items.
  • 3 points for economy, the backbone of the game.
  • 2 points for a main quest.
  • 2 points for graphics, sound, and interface. The graphics are functional, but there's no sound. While the keyboard interface is easy to master, the game sometimes requires input where it isn't necessary. 
  • 5 points for gameplay. The single-player game is relatively quick, and the difficulty options make it both (potentially) challenging and replayable.
That gives us a final score of 22, which isn't bad for a non-RPG for the year. If I were a strategy game addict, I'd be interested in how it feels against other players. You only get 3 actions for each "turn" (4 if you have certain magic items); constantly swapping turns might get annoying and boring.

Thursday, July 29, 2021

Arcan: Won! (with Summary and Rating)

I guess "Arcan" is the name of the wizard. He never actually appears in the game.
Softwave Games (developer); published as shareware, in Germany by PD Pool
Released in 1993 for Atari ST
Date Started: 13 July 2021
Date Ended: 24 July 2021
Total Hours: 27
Difficulty: Hard (4.0/5)
Final Rating: 22
Ranking at Time of Posting: 155/428 (36%)
A shareware Dungeon Master, Arcan lacks the production values of the game that inspired it, but it does a better job than most DM clones with the variety (and fairness) of puzzles and navigation obstacles. Its bargain budget is most keenly felt in sound (there is none) and in combat (there are only two monster types in the entire game). It otherwise does a decent job replicating its predecessor's mechanics, including tiled, first-person exploration, real-time combat, leveling based on skills used by the characters, and of course plenty of buttons, levers, pressure plates, spinners, keys, pits, and hidden doors.
Commenter sucinum gave me the help I needed to move forward. The revelation was simply that some levers have to be operated twice in succession to have their intended effect. I don't know why that didn't occur to me. I've certainly seen it in Dungeon Master-style games before. It's almost like I need to keep some kind of checklist to remind myself what to do when I'm stuck in this type of game. Something like:
  • Walk into walls
  • Fall into any open pits
  • Scan walls carefully for buttons
  • Pull all levers and push all buttons multiple times, looking around for changes after each pull or push
  • Try to insert everything in inventory into wall slots
  • Weigh down any pressure plates
  • Search any fire or water squares for hidden objects
What else would you put on there?
The lever opened a back way into the area previously blocked by the "repulsion" square. There, I got a key that I needed to unlock a door that brought me into the west side of the level. That ultimately brought me to a stairway back up to Main -1, and from there the levels opened into a host of interconnected stairways that tied together the three levels I had already mapped parts of.
All the levels turned out to be the same 40 x 40 size. The game started with three small sections of the main level, Main +1, and Main -1, before a pit dropped me down to Main -2. I had to map that entire level before finding my way back to a section of Main -1. At that point, the game took me up and down the original three levels liberally. For all its size, Arcan is both extremely linear and largely one-way. Every time you think you have multiple directions, they fairly quickly collapse into just one, although occasionally you find a lever that opens the way back to an earlier area. I guess one way to say it is the game is open backwards but linear forwards. This makes it easy to get stuck, and there were many times in which I thought I'd have to give up again, only to try one more thing and find the next way forward. Those moments are relatively satisfying.
My final map of the main level +1. All the annotations show how packed with different puzzles it is. The final area was in the northwest corner.
In addition to the puzzles and navigational elements I already wrote about (keys, buttons, levers, repulsion squares, one-way pits, spinners), the game introduced a few additional ones later on. The first is movable walls. They look like regular walls, but when you step towards them, they push backwards into any available space. If there is no available space, the game still alerts you that the wall "looks" movable. The game prevents you from getting into a "walking dead" situation by letting you pull the walls as well as push them. There is one area with nine separate movable walls, each blocking at least one alcove or way forward. Fortunately, the automap annotates movable walls in a different color, so if you miss any (by not barging into every wall), you can still identify them later.
The second is invisible walls or force fields, blocking you from walking down what looks like an empty corridor or through an empty chamber. Generally, there is no way to deactivate them, although one chamber is full of them, and you need to find a lever to change their configuration and make your way through.
The game alerts me to a movable wall.
The third new element is pressure plates, and they came in three varieties. The first simply acts like a switch you can't avoid, closing or opening a wall space the moment you step on it. I did not encounter any that needed to be weighed down. The second type activates a magic trap, sending a fireball or other spell whizzing down the corridor. You have to dart into alcoves to avoid the spell.
The third type is bizarre. I've never seen them in any other game. When you step on them, they immediately propel you forward. At first, I didn't get the point--they just shoved me into the next corridor space, where I could continue on my way. But I soon realized that if I walked sideways onto one of these plates, it would propel me in the facing direction, even into a wall space. To be clear, these aren't illusory walls or secret doors; they don't show up on the automap, and you can't detect them with "Magic Eye." The pressure plates are actually letting you walk through walls, into places that would otherwise be inaccessible. Sometimes there are items in those wall spaces, which breaks another of the game's usual rules.  
For a while I was mapping "repulsor" squares (which knock you back to the previous square) and sliders as the same, but there's a key difference: by pounding the keys enough, you can fight sliders. There is a huge section of Main -1 with sliders everywhere, forming a series of looping conveyor belts. I had to find a couple of key items while constantly fighting the direction the squares wanted to take me. 
A final navigation element is something I mentioned last time, but not extensively: the four-way button. I don't remember seeing anything like it in previous Dungeon Master clones. It's a button with an arrow, and the arrow points a different direction every time you push it. The game uses it to cycle various wall openings. For instance, you might enter a dead-end room from the east. There's a button on the center pillar. Pushing it once closes the east exit and opens the north. Pushing it again closes the north and opens the west. And so on. The game offered a couple of places with two or three buttons of this type, each combination of presses creating a slightly different wall configuration, requiring a lot of testing and careful mapping.
Much like Abandoned Places 2, enemies are basically an afterthought. The real point of the game is the puzzles. After five or six hours of fighting blue-robed swordsmen, the game finally introduced a second type of enemy: red-robed, staff-wielding mages. They're capable of devastating fireballs at a range. ( I should mention that although the enemies in the game all look the same, they come in a wide variety of difficulty. Some have 10 hit points, some 500. Some do 4 points of damage against you, some 40.) Just like the swordsmen, they're too tough to face in a stand-up fight, even starting at full health. Fortunately, the standard Dungeon Master tactics work, including the combat waltz, missile weapons, and hit-and-run skirmishes in long corridors. Your hit points are basically just a cushion for the occasional time in which you flub the fingering on one of the classic patterns.
A roomful of the second enemy type. Enemies almost always attack in pairs.
Because you're forced to fight this way, the few upgrades in weapons and armor really don't matter. You have to avoid getting hit at all, so whether I'm wearing a horned helm or a greater horned helm doesn't much matter. Nor does it matter whether I'm using a bronze sword, iron sword, or axe. It's just a difference of the combat waltz taking four and a half minutes instead of four and three-quarters. The only things have really excited me are bows and magic wands for my rear characters so they can participate more. Because of the dearth of such weapons, they ended the game with about one-third the experience points as the main characters.
One of the oddities of this game's approach to combat, in which you can only hit the enemy literally in front of you and enemies never change their positions in their groups, is that improvements only help when they're symmetrical. If one of my lead fighters has a much better weapon than the other, he'll kill his enemy faster, but I still need to keep waltzing away while the other one does his job. Since having to click on one "attack" button is hardly a time savings over clicking on two, you really want them to kill their foes at about the same time. This is naturally also true for the rear characters. One bow doesn't do anything for me because it just speeds up the death of one enemy in a pair. Only when the two rear characters have comparable weapons do they really help.
Waltzing the swordsmen to death. They're no danger until they turn and face me, at which point I'll side-step to the left and pivot.
My front characters ended the game at Level 9, my rear at Level 6. I didn't try to spread out their class advancement by having the front characters cast spells or having the rear characters occasionally fight in melee; thus, my front characters have nothing but "warrior" levels, and my rear characters are a combination of "gladiator" (from throwing things) and the magic classes. I believe the levels went from grüschnabel ("rookie") to anfänger ("beginner"), abenteurer ("adventurer"), draufgänger ("go-getter"), profi ("professional"), fortgeschrittener ("advanced"), meisteranwärter ("master contender"), meister ("master"), and meister & lehrer ("master and teacher"). 
Ratakresch's character sheet towards the end of the game. Is it just my color blindness, or are the spells in that list nearly impossible to read?
Spells were underwhelming. Some of them are mysteries. Here's what I found:
  • Magisches auge ("Magic Eye"): Reveals secret doors. Useful, but I prefer to explore with it off, so I can tell what's a secret door and what's a regular passageway. With the spell active, they look the same.
  • Körperschutz ("Body Protection"): Increases armor class by 8 for the group. Useful in the rare occasions I have to fight face-to-face.
  • Kraftspruch (???): This translates literally as something like "Power Speech," although it vernacularly means "slogan." When cast, it puts a little "K" in the spell grid, but I have no idea what it does.
  • Donnerkugel ("Thunderball"): Casts a magic missile. Very useful once I had two copies. Most of my spell points go into this. They run out quick, but at least I don't have to spend several minutes after each combat picking up my donnerkugeln the way I do arrows and knives.
  • Lichtschild ("Light Shield"): I'm not sure. It puts a "L" in the spell grid but doesn't affect armor class. I suspect it helps against magic attacks.
  • Tuer Oeffnen ("Open Door"): This has been useful exactly once, in the puzzle I related in the first entry. I suppose I should use it every time I have to open a door so someone gets skill for it.
  • Magiewand ("Magic Wall"): Creates a temporary wall square. I can only imagine it's to block enemies from chasing you while you rest and heal, but I find it easy enough just to run far away or close a door (enemies can't open them). You can't use it to weigh down pressure plates.
  • Federleicht ("Light as a Feather"): Another mystery. It doesn't stop you from triggering pressure plates or falling down pits. Maybe it helps with over-encumbrance? That hasn't been an issue.
  • Vitalität ("Vitality"): And yet another mystery. It doesn't seem to affect statistics, heal, or do anything its name would suggest.
  • Eiskugel ("Iceball"): The second of only two offensive spells, I found it in the game's final chamber, so I didn't have much of a chance to check it out. It does about twice the damage as "Thunderball" but for about twice the spell point cost.
I only found 5 spells that put letters in the spell grid, and there are 24 cells in the grid. Either the developers left lots of room for expansion, or there are more spells in the post-game (see below).
What I'd really hoped to find is something like lebensmittelkreation. Food was my constant problem until nearly the end. You simply don't find enough to keep the party nourished if you explore carefully, do everything, and have to backtrack a bit. I had to settle into a pattern of saving, exploring for a while to map and figure out how to solve the puzzles, then reload and rush through the areas previously explored. It was the only way to keep from starving to death. There's a fountain in the starting area where you can fill up canteens and bottles, but it's no longer accessible once you drop down to Main-2. Finally, towards the end of the game, I found another one and filled up every item I had. That lasted me for the rest of the game. It occurred right before I found a lever that returned me to the starting area, so having two fountains was a bit redundant.
Filling a bottle at the fountain.
The endgame takes place mere steps from the beginning, behind a door for which you've had to explore the entire dungeon to find a key. The antechamber has about six pairs of enemies. I led them out carefully one-by-one, closing the door behind each pair, so I could waltz them to death. Once they were dead, I searched the chamber and found a third wall message:
So you've actually managed to get to my treasure chamber. But you are not in possession of my treasures yet - you still have to conquer them. . . hahaha. My guards will know how to prevent this! So think carefully about whether you dare to enter the treasury or whether you prefer to turn back.
I thought carefully, then entered the treasury. A floor plate closed the door behind me. The inner area had another half dozen pairs of tough enemies. They were dispersed in a square corridor surrounding some central pillars, and there was only one area with enough space to waltz. It took me a few reloads to safely clear out enough pairs with hit-and-run tactics (without getting trapped in the hallway) so that I could lead the rest to the ballroom floor.
The door opens to the final area.
Once everyone was dead, there was no actual treasure to find, just a textual suggestion that we'd met our goal:
Arcan's Treasury. Congratulations, you did it! Your unsurpassed heroism has brought you to the goal of your search. Since you have proven yourself to be worthy opponents, I have decided to impose further tests and puzzles on you. Just for fun. Haha!
The "further tests and puzzles" are found on one or more optional post-game floors. I already knew there was a Main +2 because one set of stairs had brought me up there before immediately dropping me back down. I had assumed the endgame would be there, and I was surprised to find it where it was. The rest of it is accessed from a stairway in the treasure chamber. It brought me into a large room ringed by alcoves, every one of which had a pair of wizards flinging fireballs.
The party stumbles into the area before it's ready.
I wasn't much interested in continuing, but I took the time to clear the wizards. They refused to leave their alcoves, so there was no waltzing. I had to start with a pair that were positioned in such a way that no other wizards could hit me, then dart in front of their alcove, hit them a few times, and sidle away. After 30 minutes of this and a lot of reloads, I had the room clear. At that point, the only way forward appeared to be a door with a keyhole for which I hadn't found a key. Holes on the ceiling suggest another level above this one, so I decided to take my win and call it a day.
The challenge area started full of tough enemies (!!) with few safe places since they can shoot down their adjacent rows and columns.
In a GIMLET, I give the game:
  • 1 point for the game world. The only story is that you're there to find treasure.
  • 3 points for character creation and development. There's no creation, which hurts some of the potential replayability of the game, but I do like Dungeon Master-style development. I'd have rated it higher if combat had been more meaningful.
Menthor levels up.
  • 0 points for no NPCs.
  • 4 points for encounters and foes. When a game has puzzles, I use this category to rate the puzzles, and I found Arcan's reasonably satisfying. They're not quite as creative as Dungeon Master, but they do a lot better than many clones. More on that in a bit. The foes are otherwise nothing to praise, especially where they're fixed in number. I wouldn't have minded at least one grinding opportunity in case I didn't want to fight all my battles with keyboard tricks.
  • 3 points for magic and combat. Like some other DM clones, Arcan errs too much on the side of requiring combat waltzing and other maneuvers, thus damaging what would otherwise be a fair system of melee and missile weapons and spells. A game would need a better variety of foes, and thus a more interesting variety of spells to affect them, to get a higher score.
  • 3 points for equipment. As covered above, modest upgrades with limited utility.
A few treasures await in a late-game treasure room.
  • 0 points for no economy.
  • 1 point for its nebulous main quest.
  • 3 points for graphics, sound, and interface. The graphics are only functional, the sound non-existent. The interface needed more keyboard shortcuts but otherwise works well. I particularly like the automap, which cleverly uses colors and shading to depict buttons, plates, pits, moving walls, secret doors, and the like. When I was stuck, reviewing the automap almost always helped.
  • 4 points for gameplay. The length and the challenge were about right for its ilk. 
That gives us a final score of 22. As usual, DM fans will argue that no NPCs and no economy are not necessarily weaknesses, so in that case, remove and rescale for a score of around 28-30, depending on whether you think a story should be important to the sub-genre. Either way, it falls short of what I would consider "recommended," even for the sub-genre, but not too far short. 
Since the game is so heavily about its puzzles, as I played I took careful note of my reactions to them. To paraphrase Dorothy Parker, I hate solving Dungeon Master-style puzzles, but I love having solved them. I love it so much that I carefully annotate my maps with the solutions even though I'll never be coming through this area again. Then I move to the next room and find some contraption or configuration I haven't encountered before and swiftly go through the five stages of grief: "Screw this!"; "Weren't levers and pressure plates enough for you!?"; "All right, I'll try to figure it out for five minutes, and then I quit"; "I'll never get it; someone like sucinum will have to bail me out again"; and "Wait a minute. What if I try this?" But even though I ultimately get some satisfaction solving them, I'll always prefer logic puzzles, riddles, wordplay, treasure hunts, and inventory puzzles to the mechanical variety exemplified by Arcan
Thus, rather than spend any more time on the "bonus" levels, I'll save my stamina for Arcan's sequel, Walls of Illusion, coming later this year. Say what you want about Motelsoft, but they sure did produce.
[Ed. To clear up any confusion as to whether the "bonus" levels were in fact the "real" end of the game, I played for another 12 hours and posted another entry.]

Monday, July 26, 2021

Game 425: Tower of Doom (1987)

Tower of Doom
United States
Mattel Electronics (developer); INTV Corporation (publisher)
Released in 1987 for Intellivision
Date Started: 12 July 2021
Date Ended: 12 July 2021
Total Hours: 4
Difficulty: User-defined
Final Rating: 21
Ranking at Time of Posting: 151/428 (35%)
As longtime readers know, I am color blind. Among the many disabilities one can have, I suppose I was blessed. But it can be annoying. First of all, no one understands it. When I tell people I'm color blind, they always want to test me by asking what color something is. "What color is my shirt?" Color blindness doesn't mean that everything looks monochrome or black and white (except for a very small percentage of people who have monochromacy), but sometimes I wish it did. That way, I could just say, "I don't know--the same color as everything else." It would be easier to explain.
Asking a color blind person the color of your shirt makes about as much sense as asking a blind person how many fingers you're holding up--not because he can't tell (not every "blind" person is 100% sightless), but because the answer doesn't prove anything. If I guess "blue" and get it right, it's just because that's a color I can see, or you just happened to wear an uncomplicated shirt. If a blind person gets it right with "three," that doesn't mean his vision isn't a major disability in everyday life. You've just identified one situation in which it doesn't apply. 
A typical shot from Tower of Doom. The upper-left shows the level map as I've revealed it so far. The lower-left has my inventory (spear, axe, food, two potions, bow, key). The lower-right has shields representing my max health. A serpent is coming for me in a room with a trap to my right and a magic ring slightly above me.
I'm a Strong Deutan, which means I primarily can't distinguish reds and greens, but it means more than that. It means that color in general has diminished importance for me. Even when I can distinguish two colors I don't necessarily internalize the distinction. Colors don't make an impression; they aren't part of how I visualize something in my imagination. Put something teal and something turquoise in front of me, and sure I'll be able to distinguish them. I might even be able to assign the right names. But make me close my eyes, take one away, and present the other one in isolation, and I probably won't be able to tell you which one it was. Color is not a part of my regular language or thought process. I cannot off the top of my head tell you what colors my state uses on its license plates, or the official colors of the university I teach for, or the hair or eye color of the people who work in the same hall as me. I don't perceive two "clashing" colors as not going together, or two complementary colors as synchronizing particularly well. I have to write symbols on the tags of my clothes to remember which of them "go."
I think in shades. Things are dark, medium, or light to me. I will sometimes use colors, but only in the bluntest way, like the way a southerner uses "Coke." If he says it, you can be sure he wants soda, but not necessarily what type. I will use "blue" for things that you call not only navy blue, azure, sapphire, and indigo, but also things you call purple, mauve, and violet. To me, pink, light gray, and cyan are all in the same color "family" because they're all light shades.
A poor choice of a potion has made me temporarily blind. Among my items in the lower-left (which don't include the question mark or the arrow), I can distinguish three colors. I just can't name them, and when they're not on the screen, I won't remember them.
My color blindness affects how I perceive and judge the world. Camouflage works extremely well on me. If you showed up at my house having just murdered someone, your shirt covered in blood, I might think you spilled a milk shake on yourself. The idea of separating laundry is absurd, because I can't distinguish or care about the difference. I throw away bread and cheese the moment it hits its expiration because I can't trust my senses to call attention to mold. If you color-code the rows in your Excel spreadsheets, even using colors that I can distinguish, instead of just putting a column with a data value in it, I think you're a child. How could you possibly prefer color to a hard-coded value? And when it comes to the visual arts, including film, paintings, and games, I'm immune to a lot of things that you would consider vast improvements. I could not functionally tell the difference between the original and special editions of Skyrim. Or maybe I could, but without really putting my mind to it, I wouldn't be able to articulate what those differences are. More important, I wouldn't care. Readers have told me numerous times about those Enchroma classes that are supposed to fix or ameliorate some kinds of color blindness. I'm sure I'll try them some day, and they'll probably improve my perception of the fall foliage, but they won't re-write nearly 50 years of language, perception, and habit. I appreciate that a lot of modern games have color correction for various forms of color-blindness, but even they don't get at the root issue. If some element of an interface requires an assessment of color, even if I can functionally tell the difference, my brain will refuse to register it as "important" unless I force myself to focus on it. A letter "P" is a much better indicator that I'm poisoned than a red dot.
Sorry--long screed. I was motivated to write all of this by Tower of Doom, the last RPG (only one of two, by my definitions) for the Intellivision. It's a good game, almost a roguelike for a second-generation console, but for me its fatal flaw is that everything is color-coded. You have to learn for each game which potions are safe to drink and which magic items are safe to use. You will perceive the colors (web sites tell me) as gray, cyan, orange, brown, pink, lavender, green, and magenta. If you give me those eight colors and ask me to assign those words to them, I'd probably get at least five right. But show me any one of those colors, and make me choose the right name, and I'll probably have at least five possibilities. This makes it extremely hard to keep notes on what does what.
In melee combat with a skeleton.
Tower of Doom began as Mattel's third Dungeons & Dragons game, but Video Game Crash of 1983 caused the company to sell its entire electronics division to a former vice president, who started INTV Corporation. The Dungeons & Dragons license agreement did not survive the dissolution. Development continued at INTV without the D&D stamp, but ironically the authors managed to produce a game much closer to Dungeons & Dragons (while, admittedly, still not being very close) than the two previous efforts. TSR would later allow Capcom to produce an arcade game called Dungeons & Dragons: Tower of Doom (1993).
The game might have started as a D&D licensed product, but someone had clearly played Rogue or Hack. Tower of Doom is a quasi-roguelike. Some players might even dispute the "quasi." I include it because Tower has far simpler inventory, combat, and command systems than full roguelikes. It's also not turn-based, and it has an action component to combat. But there's clearly a roguelike ancestry. It features (usually) randomly-generated dungeon levels that are slowly revealed as you explore, color-coded gear, hunger and food, and permadeath. There isn't even any saving, which is somewhat absurd for the size of some of the dungeons.
As you start a new game, you get to choose from 14 length and difficulty settings. The easiest scenario is "Novice," which has only six fixed levels and does not randomize the assignment of colors to items. The only objective is to exit the sixth floor with as much treasure and experience as you can amass. The hardest are "Wizard Hunt" and "Grail Quest," which are always 32 random levels with a fixed objective--to kill a wizard and find the Holy Grail respectively. In between are "Tower," "Catacombs," "Fortress," and "The Challenge," which are between 6 and 32 levels.
Selecting the difficulty level at the beginning of the game. I know it's a minor thing, but finding the Grail isn't what the "Grail Quest" was about!
In addition to the dungeon difficulty, you also have a difficulty based on your character "class," which like NetHack is really just a starting set of attributes (strength, stamina, diplomacy, max hit points) and equipment. Classes are novice, warrior, archer, knight, trader, barbarian, waif, friar, warlord, and warlock. The hardest class is the waif, who starts with the lowest attributes (6 each) and the lowest max hit point "shields" (1.5) and is the only class to start without a weapon. The warlord starts with the highest max HP (5.5 shields) but only 9s in his attributes. Warriors and traders start with the highest strength (13) but only moderate max HP.
Gameplay looks the same for everyone. You're dropped in Level 1 of the dungeon of your choice, and you begin running around fighting monsters and collecting treasure. The control scheme is unintuitive but relatively easy to master. The little panel in the lower right has three rows. The second and third rows are your inventory (8 items max); the top one is action icons that include checking your stats, switching your active weapon, opening a door, and going downstairs (the latter two only appear when at doors and stairs). Whether using an item or activating an action, you hit one button to get into the panel, another to activate an icon, and a third to drop an item.
There are a bunch of things to find in the dungeon:
  • Weapons. There are 11 types of weapons in the game including both melee (dagger, hammer, small sword, mace), missile (bow, wand, dart), and those that serve as both (spear, axe). Missile weapons have limited uses, as indicated by color. Colors are supposed to tell you the power level of melee weapons, too.
  • Treasures, including bracelets, piles of coins, gems, and necklaces. These simply add to your treasure score, though you can also use them to bribe monsters (more below).
  • Magic items, including books, cloaks, potions, rings, and scrolls. These have a variety of effects as determined by color. Most are positive, including boosting attributes, improving defense, increasing speed, making you immune to traps, healing, and temporarily increasing maximum health. But a lot are negative, including sapping levels, freezing, slowing you down, and making enemies invisible to you. This is naturally where I had the most trouble.
When you use an item, you get a little message indicating what it did.
  • Traps, which can cause confusion, paralysis, hit point loss, hunger, and teleportation. They're always visible, but they often block the corridor and there's no way to disarm them.
  • Keys, which are color-coded to traps and let you walk through them without penalty.
  • Food, of which you need about 1 meal per level (if you explore exhaustively) to avoid losing health.
There are 13 monsters. In order of difficulty, they are giant rats, serpents, stirges, skeletons, stag beetles, axebeaks, giant scorpions, owlbears, wraiths, hydras, beholders, dragons, and wizards. As you can see, these all come from the Dungeons & Dragons bestiary, although they don't really have special powers; the higher-level ones just hit harder. They do have different speeds and vastly different experience point rewards, from 10 (rat) to 10,240 (wizard). The monsters are introduced at a rate of one per two levels unless you play "The Challenge," in which case they come at one new monster per level. So a player in a six-level dungeon never faces anything harder than a skeleton. One of the things that I like about the game is that the dungeon level adjusts the maximum level of monsters, not the minimum or average. You can still meet giant rats on Level 32, and in fact if you do, it's often more useful to avoid them (they're slow) rather than fight them, since no other enemy will appear on the same screen as long as they're around.
I don't remember any other CRPG to feature an axebeak. This would be a perfect corridor to use a missile weapon if I had one.
There are two modes to combat. You can shoot missile weapons down corridors, hoping to kill enemies before they reach you. This is tough in twisty corridors or with fast enemies. If the enemy reaches you, you're taken to a special combat screen where you exchange melee blows.  
Firing a spear at a skeleton, who is blocking the stairway down. I have a bunch of spears.
One oddity of the game is that enemies don't always rush to attack on the melee screen. If they hesitate, it means they're open to a bribe. You bribe enemies by dropping items from your backpack. You can stack multiple items for bigger bribes. You lose anything you drop whether the enemy accepts or not. If he accepts, he goes away and your diplomacy attribute increases, which makes it more likely that you can bribe future enemies. It's a cute idea, but I didn't find it very useful in practice. Enemies that go away can be immediately replaced by other enemies, for one thing.
This character has no weapon, so the best I can do is bribe the serpent with a pair of boots. Or flee.
Hit points regenerate on their own, but quite slowly, and in general it's not a viable strategy to wait around for them to improve on their own. You get a little help that way, but enemies can attack and undo your progress. You really need a potion.
Although you earn experience, levels, and max HP from fighting, and a variety of benefits from finding items, hunger is always nipping your heels, and I generally found it was best to go down as soon as I found the stairs. Once down, you cannot go back up. Surviving is otherwise a matter of knowing when to fight, when to fight only with missile weapons, and when to flee. Dragons are best fought with missile weapons, as they're powerful but slow. Wizards, beholders, and hydra are best avoided entirely.
Right before I turned around and went back the way I came in.
There are lots of tricks you'd learn only from experience. I read most of them on the StrategyWiki article for the game. For instance, traps only work against you if no sound is currently playing, so you can avoid them by forcing the game to play a sound. One easy way is to "use" a treasure, which converts it to points and plays a chime for a couple of seconds, long enough to run through the trap. Stairs are never behind doors. You should try potions on full stomachs because food eliminates some of their effects. Mortars and pestles are more likely to be cursed than other magic items.
I started off on the "Catacombs" dungeon with 12 levels and a warlord character. I was just learning the ropes with this one. I made it to Level 4 before a skeleton killed me because I had accidentally used up my spear and didn't have a backup weapon. During this process, I took save states to facilitate screen shots but only reloaded if I died because I was fiddling with a screenshot. Later, I figured out how to pause the game (although it darkens the screen) when I wanted to take a shot.
My "novice" character heads for the nearest bar.
And his pathetic, but legitimate, score.
I moved on to a "novice" adventure with a "novice" character. It was no trouble at all. The enemies were easy. It took me less than five minutes per level, and I was out of the dungeon in less than half an hour. I took save states every level or so, but I didn't need to reload once.
I then decided to try the hardest possibility: the Grail Quest (32 levels) with the waif. I didn't get more than a couple of corridors into it. The waif starts with no weapon, so you can't fight any monsters. But the only way out of the starting area was through a paralysis trap, and monsters kept attacking me while I was stuck in the trap. I'm sure with a different random configuration, the waif is survivable, but a lot depends on how quickly you can find a weapon.
My waif is stuck in a paralysis trap while an enemy lurks nearby.
For my third try, I did Grail Quest again, this time with a knight. I made it to Level 15 legitimately before I died at the claws of an owlbear after I drank a potion that froze me in place. I thought it was the same color as one I'd previously drunk that healed me, but . . . [gestures to the first four paragraphs]. I wanted to experience the end of the adventure, so I reloaded a save state. I had to do this probably six more times before I found the Grail on Level 32. (Wizards were responsible for half of those deaths, including once where I tried to kill one with a wand but missed and the wand bounced back at me; wands are almost too dangerous to use.) Using the Grail automatically ends the game.
A grail win, but with some cheating.
Traps were a constant problem for me, and again my color blindness played a major role. If you have a key that's the same color as the trap, you're supposed to be able to hold it in your hand and walk right through. Being a strong deutan doesn't prevent me from looking at the color of a key and matching it to the color of a trap and getting it right most of the time. The issue is more that my mind refuses to attach any importance to color, so I kept forgetting to make the comparison. I never found a key to avoid the most annoying trap, the "confusion" one, which causes you to blunder in random directions for a few seconds. As often as not, you wander back into the trap and get caught in a perpetual loop.
If you meet the objective of the scenario, the game shows your character exiting the front door of the Tower of Doom and running away. You then get a final screen showing your scores. Maximum experience and wealth are 650,000, so I had a long way to go.
Tower of Doom is a pretty solid second-generation console game, one of only a couple that I would call an RPG unequivocally. It won't rate terribly high on my GIMLET, but my GIMLET is meant primarily for computer RPGs, and as I've often pointed out, I look for different experiences with console RPGs. This is the sort of game that you want to play when you come home from work, dog tired, and collapse on the couch.
On the GIMLET, it earns:
  • 0 points for the game world. I wouldn't have minded if the manual had at least tried with some kind of framing story. I suppose the lack of one is another way in which it's similar to roguelikes.
  • 3 points for character creation and development. Your choices make a big difference in the first few levels. In addition to traditional experience and leveling (and increases in max hit points), the game has several attributes with multiple ways to increase.
  • 0 points for no NPCs.
  • 2 points for encounters and foes. There aren't any non-combat encounters, but I'll give a point for traps, which pose a unique challenge. Monsters are D&D standards without the D&D special abilities.
Dragons are tough, but they can't breathe fire.
  • 2 points for magic and combat. There's no magic except what you get from items, and combat is pretty basic, one of the reasons I hesitate to call it a full roguelike. The bribe system is almost worth another point, but I can't imagine that anyone seriously uses it.
  • 3 points for equipment. You have to figure out what to prize and what to avoid by color, which adds a fun challenge for players that don't have my particular problem. There's a lot of stuff to find and use.
A potion significantly increases my max health (temporarily) just in time to get attacked by a bat.
  • 1 point for an economy that mostly just contributes to your final score, though see my comment about the bribery system above.
  • 2 points for a main quest for each scenario.
  • 3 points for graphics, sound, and interface. The graphics are clear and functional if a bit ugly, and there's a nice set of sound effects. I have to criticize it a bit on the input system. It strikes me that it would have been a trivial matter to reconfigure the inventory/command pane a bit to make better use of the number keys on the Intellivision controller, which aren't used at all. That said, I didn't find the existing controls hard to master.
  • 5 points for gameplay. It's hard to complain about too many things here when the game has so many choices for length and difficulty. There's a lot of replayability with different scenarios and classes. I don't know how contemporary players handled 32 levels without the ability to save or pause, but that wasn't a problem I experienced.
That gives us a final score of 21, which puts it at the top of the list of the four RPGs and "RPGs" released for second-generation consoles. The problem, of course, is its release date. By 1987, the NES had already been available outside of Japan for two years. (So had the SEGA Master System, but it didn't have any RPGs yet.) Tower of Doom would have been a great 1984 game, its intended year of release before the crash. In 1987, I can't find evidence that anyone took any note of it. I'm not even sure that there was any magazine left to cover it. 
"For color TV viewing only." That was a nice warning to include.
I want to thank my Patreon contributor (P. S.) for suggesting the game, and commenter Kearuda for insisting on helping me get the game running in MAME despite my open and repeated contempt for his favorite emulator. I'll never play all the other console RPG offerings, but at least I can say I was comprehensive on the second generation.